Early surgical techniques were radical, removing both the cancer and surrounding healthy tissue, often resulting in long recovery times, life-changing disability, and in some cases, severe cosmetic disfigurement. Today's surgical techniques and technologies are more precise with fewer complications. Women with early-stage breast cancer can now avoid disfiguring mastectomies, people with colon and rectal cancer can maintain their bowel function, and men with prostate cancer can often avoid incontinence and loss of sexual function.
A large study resolves a decades-long debate, confirming that for patients with certain types of early oral cancers, it’s better to remove both the primary tumor and nearby lymph nodes during initial surgery for oral cancer, rather than postponing lymph node removal until the cancer comes back. The study finds that performing more extensive surgery initially lowers the risk of cancer returning and extends survival. However, the study also noted this surgical approach has a higher risk of health complications, including difficulty moving the neck and shoulders and problems with talking and swallowing.