Screening advances that lead to early detection have been a major contributor to better survival. Some advances in this area include routine mammography for breast cancer; colonoscopy and fecal occult blood testing for colon cancer; and Pap smears for cervical and endometrial cancers. With colon and cervical cancer screening, doctors can often identify and remove pre-cancerous lesions toprevent cancer from developing.
Recently, a major clinical trial showed that CT scanning can reduce the risk of lung cancer in heavy smokers by catching more cases early. Research is also under way to develop effective screening approaches for ovarian, pancreatic, kidney, and other cancers.