CHICAGO – A randomized phase III clinical trial shows that people with advanced colorectal cancer may not need a frequently considered component of treatment – heated chemotherapy delivered to the abdomen during surgery. There was no difference in survival between patients with metastases in the abdomen who received heated chemotherapy during surgery and those who received surgery alone. Long-term side effects were more common with chemotherapy.
CHICAGO – Findings from an updated analysis from a randomized phase III trial show that taking a high dose of the acid-reducing medicine esomeprazole (Nexium®) with low dose aspirin for at least seven years can moderately reduce the risk of developing high grade dysplasia (a pre-cancerous lesion) or esophageal cancer, or delay death from any cause in people with Barrett’s esophagus.
CHICAGO – A federally funded phase III clinical trial shows that most women with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative, axillary node-negative early-stage breast cancer and a mid-range score on a 21-tumor gene expression assay (Oncotype DX® Breast Recurrence Score) do not need chemotherapy after surgery. The study found no improvement in disease-free survival when chemotherapy was added to hormone therapy in this group, which accounts for about two-thirds of women who participated in the trial. The findings will have an immediate impact on clinical practice, sparing thousands of women the side effects of chemotherapy.
CHICAGO – A randomized phase III clinical trial showed that many people with advanced kidney cancer can avoid surgery to remove the kidney (nephrectomy), without compromising survival. The median overall survival for people who received only the targeted therapy sunitinib (Sutent®) was 18.4 months, compared to 13.9 months for those who received surgery followed by sunitinib, the current standard of care.
CHICAGO – A new chemotherapy strategy improves cure rates for children with rhabdomyosarcoma (a rare cancer of the muscle tissue) who are at high risk for cancer recurrence. In a randomized phase III clinical trial, adding six months of low-dose maintenance chemotherapy after initial treatment increased the 5-year overall survival rate from 73.7% to 86.5%. Children with rhabdomyosarcoma who are alive at five years are considered cured, as tumor recurrence is very rare.
CHICAGO – A large, randomized phase III trial shows that the immunotherapy pembrolizumab (Keytruda®) is a more effective initial treatment than chemotherapy (the current standard of care) for the majority of patients with the most common type of lung cancer. People with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with a PD-L1 expression of 1% or more who were first treated with immunotherapy pembrolizumab lived a median of 4-8 months longer than those who received chemotherapy. In addition, severe side effects occurred in fewer patients receiving pembrolizumab than chemotherapy (18% vs. 41%).
CHICAGO – A genomic study of more than 15,000 tumor samples shows that people with tumors that have high microsatellite instability (MSI-H) – a genomic marker associated with a large number of genetic mutations in the tumor – are more likely to have Lynch syndrome, a hereditary condition that increases a person’s risk of developing many different types of cancer. Among people with MSI-H tumors, 16% were subsequently found to have Lynch syndrome. Researchers also found that Lynch syndrome is linked to more types of cancer than previously thought.
CHICAGO – An initial report from the large, ongoing Circulating Cell-Free Genome Atlas (CCGA) study provides preliminary evidence that a blood test may be able to detect early-stage lung cancer. This is one of the first studies to explore blood tests analyzing free-floating or cell-free DNA as a tool for early detection of cancer.
CHICAGO – Initial findings from a randomized phase III clinical trial show that patients with advanced squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) benefit more from initial treatment with PD-L1 targeted immunotherapy atezolizumab (Tecentriq®) and chemotherapy than from chemotherapy alone -- 29% had a reduced risk of disease worsening or death compared with those who received chemotherapy alone. At 12 months, cancer had not worsened in twice as many patients who received atezolizumab plus chemotherapy compared to those who only received chemotherapy. This benefit was observed across all PD-L1 expressing sub-groups.
CHICAGO – Researchers conducted a retrospective analysis of consecutive, prospectively molecularly profiled patients with advanced cancer who participated in a large, personalized medicine trial. They found that using molecular tests of tumors to select targeted therapy resulted in slower cancer growth and prolonged survival across a diverse set of cancer types. Of the 1,307 patients with at least one genetic change in the cancer, the 3-year overall survival rate was 15% in the matched targeted group compared to 7% in the non-matched group. The 10-year overall survival rate was 6% for the matched group and 1% in the non-matched group. Overall survival in the matched group plateaued, starting at 3.2 years (11% were still alive).
Today at the 2018 ASCO Annual Meeting, National Cancer Institute (NCI) Director Norman Sharpless, MD, announced $10 million in new funding for the National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN). ASCO applauds Dr. Sharpless' leadership in ensuring NCI's continued commitment to clinical trials, which expand our knowledge of cancer and offer the best treatment options for many patients.
As nearly 40,000 oncology professionals from around the world gather in Chicago for the 2018 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) to learn about the latest in clinical cancer research -- from new treatment options and advances in precision medicine to insight for improving access to care -- ASCO welcomes the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) announcement that it is advancing new policies to make the drug review and approval process more modern, more scientifically rigorous, and more efficient.
CHICAGO – In a phase III clinical trial, a new targeted medicine, taselisib, combined with standard hormone therapy fulvestrant (Faslodex®), halted the growth of advanced breast cancer growth by 2 months longer than hormone therapy alone, and decreased the chance of cancer worsening by 30%. Taselisib targets a common genetic abnormality in breast cancer – PIK3CA gene mutation – and is the first and most potent treatment in a relatively new class of PI3K inhibitors, according to the authors.
CHICAGO – An analysis of health claims data from two demographically similar regions on either side of the U.S. and Canada border shows that a common treatment for advanced colorectal cancer costs twice as much in Western Washington State (WW) than in British Columbia (BC) -- $12,345 vs. $6,195 monthly per patient. Despite the higher cost, the patients on the U.S. side of the border are not living longer than those on the Canadian side.
CHICAGO – In a prospective clinical trial of 100 men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, the response to the hormone treatment abiraterone (Zytiga®) was greater and longer lasting in black men than in white men. Black men were more likely to have a decline in prostate-serum antigen (PSA) -- a sign of prostate cancer response -- and had a 5-month longer median time to PSA worsening than white men (16.6 vs. 11.5 months).